Tag Archives: krypton

Distillation campaign for XENONnT finished

The up-coming XENONnT experiment utilizes a total of 8.3 tonnes of xenon to search for the ever elusive dark matter particles. In addition to the existing 3.3 tonnes of ultra-pure xenon from XENON1T, another 5 tonnes of xenon were purchased by the XENON collaboration. 

Before the new gas can be used for XENONnT, it needs to be purified. Besides oxygen, nitrogen and water that potentially absorb the light and charge signals in the detector, the radioactive noble gas Kr-85 within the xenon needs to be removed. Kr-85 is a man-made isotope created in nuclear bomb testing and nuclear fuel reprocessing. It makes up a fraction of 10-11 of the natural krypton (Kr-nat) abundance.

The commercially available xenon arrives with a Kr-nat in xenon concentration on the order of 10-6 (ppm, parts per million) to 10-9  (ppb, parts per billion) and needs to be purified down to a concentration of 0.1 x 10-12 (ppt, parts per trillion). To put this in relation: When purchased, an Olympic swimming pool filled with liquid xenon contains a 10 liter bucket of krypton. After purification, 200 Olympic swimming pools filled with liquid xenon contain together just one single droplet of krypton.

The purest xenon on Earth can be produced with the help of our Krypton Distillation Column located underground in the service building of XENON1T/nT as seen in the picture below. The purification method is based on the separation due to the different boiling points of xenon and krypton. While xenon is in its liquid form at -100°C, krypton, as the lighter atom, prefers to stay in its gaseous form. Like that, krypton is enriched at the top of our distillation tower from where it is removed and stored in a bottle as so-called “offgas”. The purified xenon can exit the distillation system at the bottom.

The picture shows the service building of XENON1T/nT. Bottles with new xenon, containing tiny trace amounts of the radioactive noble gas Kr-85, were connected to the “Bottle rack” (Blue-red-dashed line). The xenon is guided into the “Distillation column” to separate krypton from xenon. At the top, krypton-enriched xenon is extracted as “offgas” (red line), while at the bottom, the purified xenon is taken out (Blue line). Purified xenon is either stored inside “ReStoX-I” (Left side, blue line), the storage system of XENON1T, or in “ReStoX-II” (Right side, blue line), a newly installed storage system for XENONnT.

In total, over 100 bottles of freshly delivered xenon were installed in two bottle batches at the “Bottle rack”. Here, xenon samples from each batch were measured with a connected residual gas analyzer (RGA) system. Xenon from one of the bottle batches was continuously filled to the distillation system. Purified xenon was stored  either to the Recovery and Storage for XENON1T (ReStoX-I) (left side of the picture) or to the ReStoX-II system (right side of picture), a newly installed subsystem for XENONnT. ReStoX-II is a system designed to rapidly recover and safely store up to 10 tonnes of xenon, that will serve as an fast recovery system during operation of the XENONnT experiment as well as xenon storage previous to the start of the experiment.

The full distillation campaign was split into three phases starting from April 2019 and was finished in July 2019. Xenon samples were extracted to measure the purified xenon purity at MPIK Heidelberg with a rare gas mass spectrometer

As always in our collaboration, this operation too was an interplay between different groups: The bottle rack was installed by MPIK Heidelberg, the Distillation Column was operated by WWU Münster, and the ReStoX-I and -II systems were built and monitored by Columbia University in New York and Subatech-CNRS. The existing slowcontrol system was updated for the distillation campaigns by the Weizmann Institute of Science. Furthermore, local support was given by the group of INFN. Finally, to exchange bottles and to monitor the system 24/7, shifters from all over the collaboration supported the core distillation team.

XeSAT2017: Online krypton and radon removal for the XENON1T experiment

This talk by Michael Murra (slides) was presented at the XeSAT2017 conference in Khon Kaen, Thailand, from 3. – 7. April 2017.

The  main background for the XENON1T experiment are the intrinsic contaminants krypton and radon in the xenon gas. Instead of purifying the xenon once before starting the science run we were able to operate our distillation column in a closed loop with the XENON1T detector system running during its commissioning phase. This resulted into reducing the krypton concentration quickly below 1 ppt (parts per trillion, 1 ppt = 10^(-12) mol/mol) without emptying and refilling of the detector.

In addition, the column was operated in the same closed loop in inverse mode in order to reduce Rn-222 by about 20% during the first science run.

This so-called online removal for both noble gases along with the working principle of the distillation system are presented within this talk.

Measuring Kr Contamination with an Atom Trap

 

Prof. Elena Aprile and Graduate Student Luke Goetzke work on the ATTA system at Columbia University

Prof. Elena Aprile and Graduate Student Luke Goetzke work on the ATTA system at Columbia University

The Krypton Problem

One of the many advantages of using xenon as a dark matter target is that xenon has no naturally occurring long-lived radioactive isotopes. However, when xenon is distilled from air, about 1 krypton atom per billion xenon atoms is also gathered. A very small fraction of these krypton atoms, only one in one hundred billion, are the radioactive isotope 85-Kr.

The decay of 85-Kr releases an electron which can then scatter in the xenon detector. These electronic recoil events can potentially obscure even rarer signals from interactions with dark matter. Thus, for dark matter detectors using liquid xenon, the krypton needs to be removed. This is done by passing the xenon through a cryogenic distillation column specifically designed for removing krypton.

After going through the krypton column, the xenon is very clean. For XENON100, there are only ~10 krypton atoms per trillion xenon atoms. Finding one of those krypton atoms is like picking out one single star from the entire Milky Way galaxy. XENON1T has 10 times even less krypton in the xenon.

Measuring the Krypton Contamination

Measuring such a tiny amount of krypton is not trivial. One way is to look for the decay signature of 85-Kr using the XENON detector itself. However, due to its relatively long half life (~11 years), it takes many months to get an accurate estimate with this method. So, how do we measure the tiny amount of krypton relatively quickly and accurately?

An atom trapping device has has been developed by the group at Columbia University to do exactly that (see E. Aprile, T. Yoon, A. Loose, L. W. Goetzke, and T. Zelevinsky, “An atom trap trace analysis system for measuring krypton contamination in xenon dark matter detectors”, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 84, 093105 (2013), arXiv:1305.6510). The method, called Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA), was originally developed at Argonne National Lab for the purpose of radioactive dating. It has been adapted to measure samples of xenon gas taken directly from the XENON detectors.

All ATTA devices have the same operating principle: traditional laser cooling and trapping techniques are employed to selectively cool and trap the element of interest present in the sample. The trapped atoms emit light which is detected by a photo detector, in our case an avalanche photodiode. The trapped atoms can thus be counted. The Columbia ATTA device is designed to be sensitive to single trapped atoms, since for clean samples the average number of krypton atoms in the trap at any given time is close to zero.

The rate at which the atoms are loaded into the trap is the number we are after. The device is calibrated carefully in order to find the trapping efficiency, i.e. the fraction of krypton atoms that get trapped and counted successfully. Multiplying the measured loading rate for a given sample by the known trapping efficiency gives the total number of krypton atoms flowing through the system. Finally, measuring how many xenon atoms flow through the system at the same time allows the krypton fraction to be calculated. The entire measurement can be completed in one working day.

The Columbia ATTA device allows the xenon used in XENON1T to be assayed for krypton contamination quickly and accurately, thus ensuring that krypton levels are safe before beginning a dark matter run, and during the run itself. And it looks pretty cool, too!