Most direct detection searches focus on elastic scattering of galactic dark matter particles off nuclei, where the keV-scale nuclear recoil energy is to be detected. In this work, the alternative process of inelastic scattering is explored, where a WIMP-nucleus scattering induces a transition to a low-lying excited nuclear state. The experimental signature is a nuclear recoil detected together with the prompt de-excitation photon. We consider the scattering of dark matter particle off 129Xe isotope, which has an abundance of 26.4\% in natural xenon, and when excited to it lowest-lying 3/2+ state above the ground state it emits a 36.9 keV photon. This electromagnetic nuclear decay has a half-life of 0.97 ns.
The WIMP inelastic scattering is complementary to spin-dependent, elastic scattering, and dominates the integrated rates above 10 keV of deposited energy. In addition, in case of a positive signal, the observation of inelastic scattering would provide a clear indication of the spin-dependent nature of the fundamental interaction.
The search is performed using XENON100 Run-II science data, which corresponds to an exposure of 34×224.6 kg×days. No evidence of dark matter is found and a limit on dark matter inelastic interaction cross section is set. Our result, shown in the Figure, is the most stringent limit for the spin-dependent inelastic scattering to date, and set the stage for a sensitive search of inelastic WIMP-nucleus scattering in running or upcoming liquid xenon experiments such as XENON1T, XENONnT, LZ, and DARWIN.